For directions how to play this game, go to: These bookmarks are great for large Braille books because they hold the spot very well. Plus they are easy and fun to make. Read an interesting story and answer questions about it. Have a story read aloud and take notes Louis Braille: The National Federation of the Blind assists Santa in doing this. This is a great tool for creating Braille art through contractions on the Perkins Brailler. It helps students remember difficult contractions, too!
There are instructions for creating several pictures such as: Go to the following website to print off your own copy.
One or more Items needed: Draw sticks with letters written in Braille. Or listen to The Braille Rap song and do this with the music. Raise the left hand above the head and slightly to the left.
Move the hip to the left. Place left foot out to the left. Raise the right hand above the head and slightly to the right.
Move the hip to the right. Place the left foot out to the right. Then, take turns pulling letters from cup and individuals create the letter with their body. For letters that need both dot two and dot five such as g, h, j, q, r, and w , individuals will need to alternate move their hips to the right and the left. If using the Braille Rap Song — move your body to form the letters then do the actions stated in the song. To encourage tactual Braille reading, make Braille flash cards out of old playing cards.
Cut the old playing cards in half or buy small party cards. Braille flashcards need not be large. Emboss the Braille so that the dots are read on the backside of the cards.
The visual clutter on the card discourages the low vision reader from trying to read the Braille with his or her eyes. Rather, it encourages tactual reading. Cut the top right corner of the cards so that one is able to determine which way is up. Maurer, President of the National Federation of the Blind, and his wife. Ashleah Chamberlain kisses Dr. Nemeth, the inventor of the Nemeth Code used for mathematical equations for blind individuals. This is a great way to meet other families who have children who are blind, successful blind role models, and learn about blindness.
Below an adult, who happens to be blind, reads a Christmas story in Braille to the children. National Reading Media Assessment.
Braille Learning Doll is a fun way to introduce Braille letters, too. Sadly, she is difficult to find. Merry-Noel Chamberlain, MA, TVI, NOMCT It is important to introduce dot numbers as soon as possible because as the child begins to create the letters in their Braille cells or later, in writing on the Perkins or electronic note taking device, they will need to know those dot numbers especially for writing with the slate and stylus.
Find a box that has six compartments like a Braille Cell as shown above. Have the student place objects in the compartment equal to the corresponding dot numbers. If you have something such as wood strips with notches cut into them equal to the corresponding dot numbers, use that.
Point out that every dot has a home. Every home has a number. Just like apartment numbers. Use different finger puppets or small toy animals in the Braille Cell.
Select one toy to live in dot one apartment 1 and select another toy to live in dot two apartment 2 etc. It is also in the shape of a Braille Cell! This can be used to identify dot locations, as well. Slate and stylus, help with reversals Object: To be the first person to make a braille letter with the numbered cubes Materials: It helps develop tactual skills.
Sometimes students enjoy decorating their own sleepshades. Soon the student realizes they are successful without peeking! Locations for Braille books: Place a sheet of Braille paper on a carpet sample. For example, a year-old male has a remaining life expectancy of nearly 18 years, according to projections used by the Social Security Administration. With regards to the stock allocation, we seek to:.
A Safety Net goal is one of the highest priority goals we recommend for investors. Your account in a Safety Net goal will be taxable, as there are no tax-advantaged accounts for general personal savings. Juxtaposed to this goal, you may also sync an external savings account if you would like to see this account included in your balance.
With any major purchase, an investor usually anticipates liquidating all at once when they reach their goal, usually for a short- or medium-term period of investing. Since we expect you to fully liquidate your investment at your intended goal date, Betterment automatically shifts your allocation to low stock percentages as you near your goal date in line with our advice, unless you set your own allocation or turn off automatic allocation adjustment.
Since you can still personalize the name, allocation, and portfolio strategy in these situations, we still call them goals within your account, but our allocation advice on these goals has fewer assumptions than the advice for the distinct goal types above. You can consider general investing goals to be the utility players within your account, where the priority is wealth creation because you have no specific plans for a liquidation event in the future.
While you can have multiple general investing goals, we often find that Betterment customers who might be using general investing goals could decrease unnecessary risks by using a more precise goal type. As explained above, Betterment works hard to help you set goals in realistic ways that match your actual savings habits.
One framework to thoughtfully determining a prioritized set of goals is called the S. A specific goal is one with a clear description and a well-articulated set of circumstances. Making a goal measurable means that you can tell how close you are to achieving the goal using numbers.
Generally, this means quantifying the specific information you know about—setting an accurate estimate of the total of the expenditure you expect to make.
You should also account for taxes in setting a precise, measurable goal. Attainable goals are future expenditures you actually have the capability to achieve. However, if you have more time to save or if you make more money each year, then perhaps the goal could be attained. A goal is realistic if you have the time, resources, and discipline to achieve it.
Generally, your goals will only be realistic if you take into account the other goals you have in your life. For example, when saving for college education, you probably will also need to invest for your retirement. The last step in developing a S. Every goal needs a deadline or target date. Just as measurable goals quantify the total expenditure you expect to make, time-limited goals quantify the time you have to reach that expenditure amount. Many generational experts place Boomers closer in their values and characteristics to Millennials than Xers.
Ultimately, and as the descriptions above have attempted to define, there is some degree of consistency among the experts in their various characterizations of the three main generations in the workforce.
Yet, at the same time, there is far more disagreement and inconsistency in how experts, observers and others define the generations. Figure three attempts to capture the majority—if not the consensus—view of the basic, general differences between the generations. Are the differences between the three main generations at work merely interesting or significant enough to spend time and resources analyzing them and designing programs to cater to workers or consumers by generational groupings?
Part Two addresses these questions directly. Others insist that the distinct and communal events that impacted us as we came of age define us for the rest of our days and cause us to view the world in a way that is unique to our generation. For a short synopsis on the foundations of generational research, please see Appendix B. The quotes above remind us that generations of youth share many things in common.
A range of research over the past several years also points more to the similarities between the generations than the differences. In Australian researchers looked for generational differences in personality and motivation. Brenda Kowske of the Kenexa Research Institute reviewed twenty-four years of workforce survey data to examine the differences between generations when in the same stage of their career.
She concluded the following: However, at the end of the day, the grand majority of employees in the U. With hard- coded cultural rules such as these, it really leaves very little room for generational variation.
These similarities among the generations represent space for common ground and can be used as platforms to establish commonalities and tackle differences. In a meta-analysis of generational studies, researchers at the University of North Carolina concluded that: In fact, the different generations may actually have more in common than previously thought. A study by PriceWaterhouseCoopers, involving more than , respondents all PwC employees across countries, is perhaps the largest study of the generations ever conducted, at least within a single workplace.
After an analysis of an enormous data set, the researchers reported the following: And while the report did find some notable differences for example, Millennials have greater expectations around support and appreciation from their organisations than their Non-Millennial counterparts it is both those differences and similarities that are compelling PwC—and likely other organisations—to sit up, take notice and accelerate their pace of change.
The PWC report went on to describe their Millennial workforce as desiring the same work flexibilities as other generations, in almost exactly the same numbers. Overall, only 47 percent of the US Millennial workforce over 25 years of age possesses a college degree.
IBM found very little difference between the generations at work, including their career goals and what it takes to motivate and engage them.
Despite findings such as these which, it must be said, represent the very tip of the iceberg there are many experts who, nonetheless, advise organizations to invest time and resources in knowing and understanding the demographics of their workforce and certainly, their customer demographics.
They argue that only with this knowledge can programs, products and services be designed to appeal to the members of various generations, and, by inference, that appealing to the various generations is a worthwhile strategy. Such programs include recruiting, on-boarding, development and training, and motivational efforts aimed at increasing employee engagement, performance, and retention.
Similarly, businesses that understand the demographic makeup of customers and consumers can, according to many generational experts, craft products and services that should boost sales across each generation. Elisabeth Nesbit of the American Counseling Association argues that counselors of all types should understand the broad differences between the generations in order to: A study of 4, insurance agency employees in 47 companies conducted by Lifecourse Associates in states that the differences between age groups in organizations is all about real generational differences and not life stages.
And so the debate rages on. However, no one—not even the most fervent believers in generational differences—suggests that every member within a generation is the same or similar in their behaviors, values and preferences. Rather, generational experts argue that an understanding of the generations can provide a useful framework for making broad and general decisions about groups of people, and a means to be aware of employee and customer differences.
Whether the similarities and differences are significant enough to warrant special attention, however, is, again, the question with which organizations must grapple.
After all, designing tailored programs, products, benefits plans, services and rewards takes time and costs a great deal of money. If so, the actions they might take are much the same. Indeed, commercially at least, providers of products and services ranging from cars to financial planning have long catered to customers at various stages in their lives—minivans for young families and retirement plans for aging workers, for example.
Rarer are products and services aimed at distinct generations. That said, music, video games, books, food, hotels and now, television streaming, often appear to target specific generations. The reports says that 56 percent of consumers stream movies and 53 percent stream television each month, but 77 percent of Millennials—youth, between 14 and 25—stream movies and 72 percent stream television programs. Nonetheless, one can argue that consumer products for generational cohorts are actually aimed at age groups.
The recent trend among hotel chains to launch youthful brands to attract Millennials is especially interesting. Do the hotels expect that as Millennials become middle aged and then older workers they will still seek out hotels designed for Millennials? It is, at best, unclear whether common events, no matter how profound, can shape the worldview of tens or hundreds of millions of people for the rest of their lives. Questions about the real and significant differences between generations are important because if one believes that generations keep certain characteristics, world views, preferences, and values throughout their careers and lives, it might be possible to predict what will most appeal to them and motivate them as they age.
If so, examples that support that notion are either non-existent or extremely elusive. Conversely, there are abundant examples of products, services and programs aimed at employees, consumers and citizens at various life stages.
If so, employers and providers may second guess expensive programs aimed at small segments of the workforce, even if they do believe in significant generational or life-stage differences. Whether due to generational differences or lifestyle and life-stage preferences, people express interest in a wide range of rewards, incentives and recognition—one size very definitely does not fit all.
At the same time, some elements of motivation are more or less universal. Even in those situations, however, generational experts are quick to point out the differences. Baby Boomers, many say, appreciate formal recognition in front of teams or groups. Millennials, it is said, enjoy the same but prefer it in the spirit of fun, with less formality and more frequency. Gen Xers, on the other hand, appreciate the recognition but prefer to receive it privately or just within their small group.
Even though the events happened in their youth, it is argued that Boomers are still effected by them. If so, it might be reflected in their preferences for rewards. Boomers are said to look for peer recognition, promotions, more responsibility and greater formal respect titles, deference, etc. Not surprisingly, experts advise organizations to provide retirement and estate planning advice and services to Boomers. In addition to retirement planning information and services and sabbaticals: Despite much logical advice about rewarding Boomers with financial services and information related to retirement, some experts advise us that Boomers have no intention of retiring.
The point is not to discredit legitimate research and survey findings but to emphasize the complexity of generalizing any group of 80 million people in the US alone and attempting to design any sort of program around them on the basis of generational differences alone. The truth is, of course, that there are some Boomers who plan to work until they drop and others who plan to retire as soon as they can. The motivation for either course of action is broad, varied and subject to abrupt change under the right or wrong circumstances.
As above, we know that all generations appreciate flexible work and the opportunity to give back to the community. Researchers in the HBR report argue that this makes things more challenging for rewards and incentives program designers because cash is no longer the main instrument to motivate people. At the same time, they point out the advantages in being able to create more diverse and experimental incentives, such as flexible work options, sabbaticals, travel, green environments, volunteer assignments and the like.
In general, they value healthy competition, with prizes, awards, and recognition on the other end. For example, an incentive travel experience might facilitate a range of activities, from the highly casual and laid-back to the outrageous and energetic, with many options in-between.
For Baby Boomers, like other generations, recognition should remain at the root of most incentive and reward programs. A study by Aon Hewitt consulting found that recognition was the fourth-most important driver of engagement globally in , behind issues such as career opportunities and pay. For Millennials, it rose to third. For Generation X, even more of the many motivational drivers shared by Millennials and Boomers apply.
At the same time, most observers believe that while all workers desire training, Xers place more value on personal development and opportunities to build their skills than Boomers or generations before them. This is consistent with generational theory that would point out the turbulent economic conditions and mass layoffs that occurred during their formative years.
Generation X is also said to demand a greater degree of proof that a reward or incentive is what it purports to be. Where Xers are invited to events, they may seek meaningful information from knowledgeable people more so than other generations. In other words, the brochure or sleek corporate video may not cut it with many Xers, they might prefer the detailed product specifications and the raw YouTube video made by a regular employee or customer, for example.
Like Boomers, Xers appreciate recognition but prefer it be delivered without fanfare—privately in most cases. As with any generation, the prospect of a sabbatical, especially a paid sabbatical, should be exceptionally well received among Xers. However, they might go either way when it comes to preferring casual or extreme experiences.
Some researchers propose that there is a fourth generation within the three main generations at work. As above, a tremendous amount has been written about how Millennials differ from the rest of the workforce, yet upon analysis, the similarities far outweigh the differences. For many, the overriding dissimilarities boil down to use and comfort with technology—particularly social technologies. This might translate into policies or rewards that allow and encourage employees to use social media at work.
For organizations and providers this also means Millennials should be looked at to understand where social technologies are headed; after all, Millennials will drive the evolution of social technology for at least the next decade. In doing so, they will shape the way the rest of the generations use social technology at work and at home. Of more than 2, Canadian consumers, including 1, Millennials, researchers found, not surprisingly, that Millennnials are the most price sensitive of the generations—they will choose a provider based on price more readily than the others.
The survey also revealed that Millennials are more interested in loyalty programs than other generations even though they use them slightly less at this stage.
Again, not surprisingly, the analysis found that Millennials are much more likely to both share and seek opinions of products and services online than the other generations. Experts frequently characterize Millennials as wanting rewards and incentives that involve doing good for the community.
The combination of time off to contribute to the community could have great appeal to Millennials especially, and like Generation X, large majorities of Millennials and Boomers want flexible work options including options to work remotely. Don Tapscott, one of the foremost authorities on the Millennial generation, believes that this cohort prefers to learn and work collaboratively, wants custom products and services as well as a hand in creating them, values integrity, the environment and treatment of workers in their choice of providers and values results over seniority in their evaluations at work.
Millennials preference for face-to-face encounters and their desire for travel and experiences could make business travel and offsite meetings particularly rewarding for Millennials, especially where it includes an element of recognition, i. Users post pictures, share meaningful events and important thoughts with their communities.
They expect and receive near instant feedback —whether through likes, quick replies or extensive comments. In contrast to the IBM research cited above, Universum conducted a global survey in , in which 93 percent of Millennials said they expect feedback at least once per month and 25 percent said they expect it everyday, if not instantly. Of course, Millennials are often derided for having received awards and recognition just for showing up—whether placing first or last in a race, for example.
As above, Millennials may be more driven than prior generations by their belief that Social Security will either run out or be insubstantial when they retire. Only about one in twenty count on getting the same level of benefits as retirees receive today. If Millennials are aware of their disadvantages around savings and retirement planning—and if they have little to no faith in government or employers providing either for them—thoughtful employers and marketers will tailor their offers accordingly, at least until Millennials reach late middle age.
Today, mass peer-to-peer recognition can be facilitated in community, social or work settings.
The Impact of Social Media Marketing Medium toward Purchase Intention and Brand Loyalty among Generation Y ☆.
This study reviewed 53 empirical articles on green purchase behavior from to This is one of the first study that reviewed articles related to attitude - behaviour inconsistencies in .
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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2 ISSN againhow.gq For most of the people, purchasing a car is the second most important and expensive decision, next to purchase of a house; for the. Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.